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The glossary provided here is largely based on “Seashells of Southern Florida: Bivalves,” by Paula M. Mikkelsen & Rüdiger Bieler, Princeton University Press. Production of this glossary was funded in part by the National Science Foundation’s Partnerships in Enhancing Expertise in Taxonomy [PEET] Program, NSF-DEB-9978119, “Bivalves - Research, Training, Electronic Dissemination of Data” (1999-2008) to Bieler and Mikkelsen.
- Distance between the UMBO and the ventral margin.
- HERMAPHRODITE (adj. HERMAPHRODITIC)
- Sexually mature animal in which male and female gametes are produced by the same individual, either simultaneously or in sequence; see also PROTANDRIC.
HINGE type characterized by the presence of more than one type of HINGE TEETH (i.e., CARDINAL plus LATERAL TEETH); occurring in most Tertiary and Recent bivalves (figure: Polymesoda floridana).
With unequally sized ADDUCTOR MUSCLES; in most cases, the posterior adductor muscle is larger than the anterior; also called anisomyarian (figure: Pinnidae).
- Gill type characterized by having more than one type of filament, producing a corrugated or plicate surface; see also HOMORHABDIC.
Posterior portion of the intestine, here applied to that part external and posterior to the visceral mass (figure: Corbiculidae).
- Collective term for the dorsal border of the articulated valves, including the LIGAMENT, HINGE TEETH, and other structures that function to permanently unite the two valves; also called hinge line.
- HINGE LINE
- See HINGE.
- HINGE PLATE
- The flattened interior dorsal area that bears the HINGE TEETH and LIGAMENT; called provinculum in larval bivalves.
- HINGE TEETH
A series of calcified dorsal interlocking teeth and sockets that allow alignment of the valves to be maintained during opening and closing; see also CYCLODONT, DESMODONT, DYSODONT, EDENTATE, HETERODONT, ISODONT, TAXODONT (figure: Laevicardium serratum). A tooth numbering system for heterodonts, originally proposed by Bernard (1895), labels hinge teeth according to their position and appearance during ontogeny as follows:
- right anterior cardinal tooth: 3a
- right middle cardinal tooth: 1
- right posterior cardinal tooth: 3b
- left anterior cardinal tooth: 2a
- left middle cardinal tooth: 2b
- left posterior cardinal tooth: 4b
- anterior lateral teeth: left AII fitting between right AI and AIII
- posterior lateral tooth: left PII fitting between right PI and PIII
- Hairy, pertaining here to PERIOSTRACUM that consists of long, shaggy processes.
- See CTENIDIUM.
- A unique specimen designated to represent the concept of a named species (currently always so designated by the original author in the original description); see also LECTOTYPE, PARATYPE, SYNTYPE.
- Shell microstructural variety consisting of irregularly shaped but more-or-less equally sized aragonitic elements that show no regular arrangement.
- Gill type characterized by having only one type of filament, thus unplicate or smooth; see also HETERORHABDIC.
- HYALINE ORGANS
- MANTLE structures occurring in the subfamily Tridacninae (Cardiidae), equipped with lenses, which transmit light to symbiotic ZOOXANTHELLAE in tissue.
- HYOTE SPINES
- Hollow tubular spines that are open distally and along the size, resulting in an ear-shaped opening; occurring in such families as Ostreidae and Gryphaeidae.
- HYPOBRANCHIAL GLANDS
- Glands in the SUPRABRANCHIAL CHAMBER of protobranch and a few other bivalves; in protobranchs, the glands function in the consolidation of waste material in the MANTLE CAVITY and in non-protobranchs, in the nutrition of larvae being incubated in the gills.
Accessory shell plate in Pholadidae and Teredinidae that covers the posteroventral margin (figure: Martesia striata).